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  • a

    The American Society for Paternal and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) is dedicated to improving patient care by advancing the science and practice of clinical nutrition and metabolism. To read more about A.S.P.E.N., please visit their website

  • c
    Clinical Nutrition

    Clinical nutrition is the proper management of a patient’s energy balance, providing sufficient amounts of proteins, fluids, vitamins and minerals, which is fundamental for health and resistance to disease. To read more about clinical nutrition, please click here.


    Compounding enables the provision of ready-to-use admixtures that can be adjusted to the energy, volume and substrate needs of the majority of patients. To read more about compounding, please click here.

  • d
    Disease-Related Malnutrition

    Disease-related malnutrition is defined as under-nutrition resulting from disease, inflammation, impaired absorption and/or poor dietary intake. To read more about disease-related malnutrition, please click here.

  • e
    Enteral Nutrition

    Enteral nutrition (EN) includes oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and sip or tube feed via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To read more about EN, please click here.


    The aims of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) are to encourage the rapid diffusion of knowledge and its application in the field of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition or, more broadly, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. To read more about ESPEN, please visit their website

  • f

    FELANPE is the bi-annual congress of the Latin American Federation of Nutrition Therapy, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. The last congress was held on October 27 to 29, 2014 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. To read more about the past congress, please visit the website

  • g

    Glomerular Filtration Rate

    Good Nutrition Practice

    Good Nutrition Practice (GNP) is a program introduced by Fresenius Kabi that sets new international standards in the nutrition therapy of patients. In collaboration with an international team of experts, Fresenius Kabi is working on a series of measures aimed at creating a simple and practical procedure to identify patients at risk, determine their nutrition needs and monitor their nutrition status. To read more about good nutrition practice, please click here.

  • i
    Intensive Care Unit

    An intensive care unit (ICU) is a special department of a hospital or health care facility providing intensive care medicine.

  • m

    The Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a screening tool. Please click here for more information about screening tools.


    Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) is a screening tool. Please click here for more information about screening tools.

  • n
    NRS 2002

    The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) is a screening tool. Please click here for more information about screening tools.

  • o
    Oral Nutrition Supplement

    Oral nutrition supplement (ONS) is a non-invasive approach to tackle malnutrition. ONS are multi-nutrient liquid, semi-solid or powder products that provide macronutrients and micronutrients with the aim of increasing oral nutritional intake.1 To read more about ONS, please click here.

  • p
    Parenteral Nutrition

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the intravenous infusion of nutrients directly into the systemic circulation, bypassing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.1 PN infusion is generally delivered via peripheral or central venous catheter insertion. To read more about parenteral nutrition, please click here.

  • r
    Refeeding Syndrome

    Refeeding syndrome can develop in malnourished patients during oral, enteral or parenteral feeding after a period of starvation. When reintroducing nutrition a metabolic shift from starvation to feeding lowers serum electrolyte levels. This can be life-threatening and can progress to acute circulatory fluid overload, respiratory decline, cardiac failure, and electrolyte disorders, especially hypophosphataemia.1

  • s

    The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) is the largest multiprofessional organization dedicated to ensuring excellence and consistency in the practice of critical care. To read more about SCCM, please visit their website


    The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is used to screen patients, but can also be used for a more in depth analysis as an assessment tool. Please click here for more information about screening tools.

  • u
    United for clinical nutrition

    The initiative “United for clinical nutrition” was created by Fresenius Kabi to partner with health care professionals and authorities, and help identify disease-related malnutrition, particularly in Latin American countries. To read more about the initiative, please click here. To read more about disease-related malnutrition, please click here.